Also called: Cooley’s anemia, Mediterranean anemia
Thalassemias are inherited blood disorders. If you have one, your body makes fewer healthy red blood cells and less hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is a protein that carries oxygen to the body. That leads to anemia. Thalassemias occur most often among people of Italian, Greek, Middle Eastern, Southern Asian, and African descent.
Thalassemias can be mild or severe. Some people have no symptoms or mild anemia. The most common severe type in the United States is called Cooley’s anemia. It usually appears during the first two years of life. People with it may have severe anemia, slowed growth and delayed puberty, and problems with the spleen, liver, heart, or bones.
Doctors diagnose thalassemias using blood tests. Treatments include blood transfusions and treatment to remove excess iron from the body. If you have mild symptoms or no symptoms, you may not need treatment. In some severe cases, you may need a bone marrow transplant.
NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
Alpha thalassemia X-linked intellectual disability syndrome is an inherited disorder that affects many parts of the body. This condition occurs almost exclusively in males.Males with alpha thalassemia X-linked intellectual disability syndrome have intellectual disability and delayed development. Their speech is significantly delayed, and most never speak or sign more than a few words. Most affected children have weak muscle tone (hypotonia), which delays motor skills such as sitting, standing, and walking. Some people with this disorder are never able to walk independently.Almost everyone with alpha thalassemia X-linked intellectual disability syndrome has distinctive facial features, including widely spaced eyes, a small nose with upturned nostrils, and low-set ears. The upper lip is shaped like an upside-down “V,” and the lower lip tends to be prominent. These facial characteristics are most apparent in early childhood. Over time, the facial features become coarser, including a flatter face with a shortened nose.Most affected individuals have mild signs of a blood disorder called alpha thalassemia. This disorder reduces the production of hemoglobin, which is the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen to cells throughout the body. A reduction in the amount of hemoglobin prevents enough oxygen from reaching the body’s tissues. Rarely, affected individuals also have a shortage of red blood cells (anemia), which can cause pale skin, weakness, and fatigue.Additional features of alpha thalassemia X-linked intellectual disability syndrome include an unusually small head size (microcephaly), short stature, and skeletal abnormalities. Many affected individuals have problems with the digestive system, such as a backflow of stomach acids into the esophagus (gastroesophageal reflux) and chronic constipation. Genital abnormalities are also common; affected males may have undescended testes and the opening of the urethra on the underside of the penis (hypospadias). In more severe cases, the external genitalia do not look clearly male or female (ambiguous genitalia).