Metabolism is the process your body uses to make energy from the food you eat. Food is made up of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. Chemicals in your digestive system (enzymes) break the food parts down into sugars and acids, your body’s fuel. Your body can use this fuel right away, or it can store the energy in your body tissues. If you have a metabolic disorder, something goes wrong with this process.
Carbohydrate metabolism disorders are a group of metabolic disorders. Normally your enzymes break carbohydrates down into glucose (a type of sugar). If you have one of these disorders, you may not have enough enzymes to break down the carbohydrates. Or the enzymes may not work properly. This causes a harmful amount of sugar to build up in your body. That can lead to health problems, some of which can be serious. Some of the disorders are fatal.
These disorders are inherited. Newborn babies get screened for many of them, using blood tests. If there is a family history of one of these disorders, parents can get genetic testing to see whether they carry the gene. Other genetic tests can tell whether the fetus has the disorder or carries the gene for the disorder.
Treatments may include special diets, supplements, and medicines. Some babies may also need additional treatments, if there are complications. For some disorders, there is no cure, but treatments may help with symptoms.
Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a condition that affects many parts of the body. This disorder was once divided into three separate syndromes: Hurler syndrome (MPS I-H), Hurler-Scheie syndrome (MPS I-H/S), and Scheie syndrome (MPS I-S), listed from most to least severe. Because there is so much overlap between each of these three syndromes, MPS I is currently divided into the severe and attenuated types.Children with MPS I often have no signs or symptoms of the condition at birth, although some have a soft out-pouching around the belly-button (umbilical hernia) or lower abdomen (inguinal hernia). People with severe MPS I generally begin to show other signs and symptoms of the disorder within the first year of life, while those with the attenuated form have milder features that develop later in childhood.Individuals with MPS I may have a large head (macrocephaly), a buildup of fluid in the brain (hydrocephalus), heart valve abnormalities, distinctive-looking facial features that are described as “coarse,” an enlarged liver and spleen (hepatosplenomegaly), and a large tongue (macroglossia). Vocal cords can also enlarge, resulting in a deep, hoarse voice. The airway may become narrow in some people with MPS I, causing frequent upper respiratory infections and short pauses in breathing during sleep (sleep apnea).People with MPS I often develop clouding of the clear covering of the eye (cornea), which can cause significant vision loss. Affected individuals may also have hearing loss and recurrent ear infections.Some individuals with MPS I have short stature and joint deformities (contractures) that affect mobility. Most people with the severe form of the disorder also have dysostosis multiplex, which refers to multiple skeletal abnormalities seen on x-ray. Carpal tunnel syndrome develops in many children with this disorder and is characterized by numbness, tingling, and weakness in the hand and fingers. Narrowing of the spinal canal (spinal stenosis) in the neck can compress and damage the spinal cord.While both forms of MPS I can affect many different organs and tissues, people with severe MPS I experience a decline in intellectual function and a more rapid disease progression. Developmental delay is usually present by age 1, and severely affected individuals eventually lose basic functional skills (developmentally regress). Children with this form of the disorder usually have a shortened lifespan, sometimes living only into late childhood. Individuals with attenuated MPS I typically live into adulthood and may or may not have a shortened lifespan. Some people with the attenuated type have learning disabilities, while others have no intellectual impairments. Heart disease and airway obstruction are major causes of death in people with both types of MPS I.