Aphasia is a disorder caused by damage to the parts of the brain that control language. It can make it hard for you to read, write, and say what you mean to say. It is most common in adults who have had a stroke. Brain tumors, infections, injuries, and dementia can also cause it. The type of problem you have and how bad it is depends on which part of your brain is damaged and how much damage there is.
There are four main types:
- Expressive aphasia – you know what you want to say, but you have trouble saying or writing what you mean
- Receptive aphasia – you hear the voice or see the print, but you can’t make sense of the words
- Anomic aphasia – you have trouble using the correct word for objects, places, or events
- Global aphasia – you can’t speak, understand speech, read, or write
Some people recover from aphasia without treatment. Most, however, need language therapy as soon as possible.
NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
Also called: Intracerebral Hemorrhage, Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
A stroke is a medical emergency. There are two types – ischemic and hemorrhagic. Hemorrhagic stroke is the less common type. It happens when a blood vessel breaks and bleeds into the brain. Within minutes, brain cells begin to die. Causes include a bleeding aneurysm, an arteriovenous malformation (AVM), or an artery wall that breaks open.
Symptoms of stroke are
- Sudden numbness or weakness of the face, arm or leg (especially on one side of the body)
- Sudden confusion, trouble speaking or understanding speech
- Sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes
- Sudden trouble walking, dizziness, loss of balance or coordination
- Sudden severe headache with no known cause
It is important to treat strokes as quickly as possible. With a hemorrhagic stroke, the first steps are to find the cause of bleeding in the brain and then control it. Surgery may be needed. Post-stroke rehabilitation can help people overcome disabilities caused by stroke damage.
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke