A birth defect is a problem that happens while a baby is developing in the mother’s body. Most birth defects happen during the first 3 months of pregnancy. One out of every 33 babies in the United States is born with a birth defect.
A birth defect may affect how the body looks, works or both. Some birth defects like cleft lip or neural tube defects are structural problems that can be easy to see. To find others, like heart defects, doctors use special tests. Birth defects can range from mild to severe. Causes can include
For most birth defects, the cause is unknown.
Health care providers can diagnose certain birth defects during pregnancy, with prenatal tests. That’s why it important to get regular prenatal care. Other birth defects may not be found until after the baby is born. Sometimes the defect is obvious right away. Other times, the health care provider may not discover it until later in life.
Babies with birth defects often need special care and treatments. The treatments may include surgery, medicines, assistive devices, and therapies.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
X-linked spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia tarda is a condition that impairs bone growth and occurs almost exclusively in males. The name of the condition indicates that it affects the bones of the spine (spondylo-) and the ends (epiphyses) of long bones in the arms and legs. “Tarda” indicates that signs and symptoms of this condition are not present at birth, but appear later in childhood, typically between ages 6 and 10.Males with X-linked spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia tarda have skeletal abnormalities and short stature. Affected boys grow steadily until late childhood, when their growth slows. Male adult height ranges from 4 feet 10 inches to 5 feet 6 inches. Individuals with X-linked spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia tarda have a short trunk and neck, and their arms appear disproportionately long. Impaired growth of the spinal bones (vertebrae) causes the short stature seen in this disorder. The spinal abnormalities include flattened vertebrae (platyspondyly) with hump-shaped bulges, progressive thinning of the discs between vertebrae, and an abnormal curvature of the spine (scoliosis or kyphosis). Other skeletal features of X-linked spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia tarda include an abnormality of the hip joint that causes the upper leg bones to turn inward (coxa vara); a broad, barrel-shaped chest; and decreased mobility of the elbow and hip joints. Arthritis often develops in early adulthood, typically affecting the hip joints and spine.